First Cobalt Corp; N. American battery materials powerhouse in the making

The global Electric Vehicle (“EV”) narrative continues to get better as over three dozen automakers with market caps > US$1 billion fight for the world’s attention. Add to that a few dozen Li-ion battery makers in need of long-term, sustainable, clean battery materials. Demand for metals including lithium, nickel, cobalt & copper will range from strong to extremely strong for decades to come.

Nickel (“Ni”)-heavy Li-ion batteries (“Li-B”) are standard in luxury models, SUVs & vehicles that get 400-500+ km per charge. Lucid Motors is delivering a mainstream sedan next year with a range of 653 km / 406 miles.

Cobalt (“Co”) provides safety, stability & longevity to NMC (nickel manganese cobalt oxide) & NCA (nickel cobalt aluminum oxide) batteries. At lower concentrations, the price of Co becomes less important. For Li-B makers and the OEMs they serve, it’s well worth paying up (modestly) to protect valuable brands from damaging headlines & lawsuits over battery failures.

FCC leveraging its 100%-owned refinery into other battery materials refining + recycling

First Cobalt Corp. [FCC] — (TSX-V: FCC) / (OTCQX: FTSSF) is a N. American battery materials company with leading ESG credentials that’s ideally positioned to play an important role in Ontario’s emergence as a significant regional EV & Li-B materials manufacturing hub.

The Company is currently expanding, optimizing & recommissioning N. America’s only permitted refinery — capable of producing clean, conflict-free battery-quality Cobalt Sulfate (“CoSO4”). FCC’s competitive advantages include its existing hydrometallurgical facility, best-quartile carbon footprint & proximity to U.S. & European markets.

Phase I will be completed in Oct. 2022, at which time the facility will ramp up to 25,000 tonnes/yr. CoSO4, making it the second largest producer outside of China. Please see new corp. presentation.

Mgmt. is eager to articulate its new strategy to supply not only battery-quality CoSO4, but also recycled battery-quality Co & Ni — plus (potentially) lithium & manganese. In addition to processing Co hydroxide into CoSO4, mgmt. is carefully considering the viability of refining Canadian-sourced Ni.

The goal is to produce CoSO4 from late 2022 on, recycling end-of-life Li-Bs from 2023/24, and Ni refining in 2024/25. Importantly, (subject to further analysis), all of these activities should be able to run concurrently. Incremental cap-ex for recycling & Ni refining is expected to be relatively modest and partly, or largely, funded from free cash flow.

Li-ion battery & EV makers to benefit greatly from co-locating next to FCC’s refinery complex

Mgmt. believes that one or more Li-B makers or OEMs will want to co-locate cathode or precursor plant next to its refinery, creating an integrated battery park. Synergies & cost savings for FCC and co-locating parties would be meaningful.

Partnered companies could share expenses (workforce, energy, infrastructure, materials & equipment handling & procurement) CEO Trent Mell believes his op-ex could be cut by 10% (by skipping the crystallization step), or > 10% including other synergies & savings. This arrangement would score high on ESG charts.

Management is actively engaged in discussions with OEMs & Li-B makers with operations in N. America & Europe. Ontario has a number of significant advantages over Chinese competitors in terms of shipping times, costs & logistics, security of supply, & tariffs.

Security of supply is of paramount importance — end users see that nearly 80% of battery-quality Co is produced in China — and it concerns them.

FCC and its world-class partners guarantee that fair & safe labor practices will be upheld by the companies they work with. Therefore, end-users will enjoy security of supply of clean, conflict-free CoSO4, diversification away from China and a transparent, sustainable chain of custody from beginning to end.

Prospective off-take partners need to reduce environmental footprints by sourcing locally, or at least regionally. FCC’s refinery is powered by a green hydro-electric grid. It emits half the greenhouse gases of a similar-sized Chinese plant, that’s most likely coal-powered.

Moreover, the Co hydroxide feedstock comes from mines that are powered with hydro-electricty. The refinery’s location reduces the distance raw materials & finished goods need to travel. This lowers carbon emissions and the risk of supply chain disruptions.

Attractive US$45M debt funding package should be in place by next month

FCC’s refinery is expected to produce ~11M pounds/yr. CoSO4 from 2023 on. However, if market conditions are strong, mgmt. believes it can flex that 11M pounds by as much as 30% to ~14.3M pounds, with relatively minimal incremental cap-ex. Please see new corp. presentation.

President & CEO Trent Mell commented,

“This is the first major battery-grade CoSO4 refinery to be built outside China in over 20 years, this is not only an exciting project for us, but also for the Western battery supply chain. Cobalt prices are up > 20% over the past five weeks and we’re witnessing stronger interest in off-take contracts as the battery supply chain shifts its focus from Europe to new investments in N. America.

Lenders are finishing due diligence on a US$45M = ~C$57.5M (C$/US$ FX = 1.277) debt facility that, combined with working capital of C$13M, plus C$10M in committed gov’t funding, should cover FCC through refinery start-up in 4th qtr. 2022.

One of the more compelling developments at FCC is the fairly new Li-B recycling strategy. When I first heard of it, the plan was to focus entirely on CoSO4 through 2023, pay down some debt, and optimize operations — before thinking about recycling.

Now, the goal is to further study black mass recycling this year. After removing plastics, copper (“Cu”), graphite & aluminum from crushed batteries — a sludgy mixture of Ni, Co & lithium (“Li”) remains — that’s black mass. Prior testing already demonstrated that the hydro-metallurgical refining process employed at FCC’s refinery generates high recoveries of Ni & Co from black mass feedstock.

Why the change? The team realized that with refinery enhancements on time / on budget, new hires on hand and full-funding nearly in place, they could pursue multiple initiatives at once. With that in mind, management is also kicking off exploration activities in Idaho (more on that later).

This year mgmt. learned that black mass feedstock is readily available to satisfy the Company’s initially modest needs. Several companies have been collecting spent consumer electronics for years. These devices typically contain Li-Co-oxide batteries, which have higher Co content than the latest NCA & NCM batteries used in EVs.

Strong profits from 2023 + potential to double cash flow by 2026

Therefore, the team can start Co operations that could produce C$44.7M in annual, pre-tax cash flow (before debt service) from 2023 on, while concurrently ramping up recycling operations. Mgmt. believes that recycling margins could be higher than that of Co/Ni refining. I don’t know how much higher, but soon-to-be-listed Li-Cycle is forecasting EBITDA margins of > 50%.

FCC’s refinery is a natural processing option for black mass because it already has extraction circuits for Ni & Co installed. Mgmt. expects its recoveries to be significantly higher than competing pyrometallurgical facilities. And, greenhouse gas emissions are negligible compared to Chinese alternatives.

Another important consideration in the recycling equation is that primary battery material scrap (from current EV production) is rapidly increasing. In the early years, new mega-factories scrap 30% (or more) of their battery metal inputs. FCC will be able to treat defective material from precursor, cathode and other materials makers / users, and faulty batteries from cell manufacturing lines.

In Phase II of the Refinery expansion, FCC will add a Li-B recycling operation. Spent batteries — in the form of black mass — will be processed to recover Co, Ni and perhaps other critical materials.

Exciting new discovery & Co + Cu resource expansion opportunities in the U.S.

FCC owns a growing Co-Cu mineral deposit in the U.S. state of Idaho, providing a foundation for a secure, strategic supply of critical raw materials. Known as the Iron Creek Project, the deposit sits on patented property within the Idaho Cobalt Belt. So far, there’s a combined 25M lbs. Co + 69M lbs. Cu (Indicated + Inferred).

Last month a $2.5M exploration program totaling 4,500 m over two drill seasons was announced. Field work is underway consisting of bedrock geological mapping & geochemical surveys.

Mgmt. is optimistic it can possibly double its existing resource in known mineralized zones, and possibly make significant new discoveries in un-drilled areas. The vision is to build an underground ‘mine of the future’, leveraging best practices & technology to minimize the environmental footprint.

If Co & Cu prices continue to rise, FCC’s small resource could become a lot more valuable, especially if it can be doubled (or more with discoveries) in size.


First Cobalt Corp. (TSX-V: FCC) / (OTCQX: FTSSF) is well down the road of future-proofing its business. If Co demand grows too slow, mgmt. can expand its recycling operations. There’s substantial exploration upside in the U.S., but the story does not hinge on new discoveries. New discoveries would be icing on the battery materials cake.

The flagship refinery has a useful life of decades, a lot longer than most mines! If all goes reasonably as planned, cash flow is only ~18 months away. A full-funding package should be in place by next month. FCC’s pro forma Enterprise Value {market cap – cash + debt} will be roughly C$170M ($0.265/shr.) after mgmt. deploys all the cap-ex dollars.

Compare that C$170M figure to the dozens of new high-tech battery, drone, EV, energy storage, charging infrastructure companies with market caps 10x -100x times larger. Unlike most of those high-fliers, FCC should be strongly cash flow positive in under two years.

Once FCC gets a full NASDAQ or NYSE American listing, (in next 6 months) the valuation could move meaningfully higher.

Please see FCC’s new corp. presentation.

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At the time this interview was posted, Peter Epstein owned shares of First Cobalt Corp., and the Company was an advertiser on [ER]. 

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